Low carbon hydrogen is crucial for decarbonizing energy, transport, and carbon-intensive industries. The MOF2H2 project aims to produce it sustainably through photocatalytic water splitting, using non-noble materials as a game-changing solution.

Introduction to MOF2H2 Project

What is a MOF?

Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are crystalline materials with coordination bonds between metal ions and organic linkers. MOFs have an open framework (porous materials) and have a high structural versatility. Therefore, they are used in a wide range of applications, from gas storage, purification and separation, to catalysis and sensing applications. In the MOF2H2 project, the chemistry of the MOFs will be finetuned for efficient hydrogen production.

What is the overall water splitting?

Overall water splitting is the chemical reaction in which water (H2O) is cracked to form hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2), using solar energy. For this reaction to effectively happen, a catalyst is needed -thus called photocatalyst: this is where the MOFs of the MOF2H2 project enter into action! The produced hydrogen can be used in various
potential market applications.

Project objectives


Improve Mof Efficiency


Understand Mof performances


Sustain Mof Production

The focus of MOF2H2

The MOF2H2 project aims to improve the sun-to-hydrogen efficiency of Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) for overall water splitting under visible light. The project also seeks to gain an in-depth understanding of the photocatalytic performance of MOFs and establish a correlation between the structure and chemical features of MOFs. Additionally, the project aims to scale up the production of the two best MOFs through a sustainable route, and evaluate the long-term stability of these MOFs in operating conditions to achieve a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 4.

The results

The results of MOF2H2

The MOFs without noble metals have achieved a record-breaking sun-to-hydrogen efficiency for overall water splitting (OWS) under visible light, with an STH of over 2-5%. In addition, laboratory-scale photocatalytic systems (1m²) based on a scalable and environmentally friendly MOF have been developed to efficiently perform OWS using sunlight irradiation, with long-term stability.


November 2022

Start of the project
MOF2H2 Kick-off.

January in 2023

Materials’ key performance indicators defined and resulting guidelines ready.

April 2023

An English version of the website is now live.

October 2023


December 2023

First prototype demonstrations using a first-generation Zr-CuPyC MOF.

May 2024

Developments on the first-generation Zr-CuPyC MOF finished

July 2024

Engineered refined MOF(s) selected

July 2024

Second prototype demonstration (using interesting MOF phase(s))

August 2024


January 2025

ReadyThird and final prototype demonstration (using engineered refined



  • Available breakthrough and game changing renewable energy technologies enabling a faster transition to a netzero greenhouse gas emissions EU economy by 2050.
  • Reduced cost and improved efficiency of renewable energy and renewable fuel technologies and their value chains.
  • Renewable and clean hydrogen aims to accelerate the development of a global H2 market by identifying and overcoming key technology barriers to the production, distribution, storage, and use of H2 at GW scale.
  • Knowledge and scientific proofs of the technological feasibility of the concept including the environmental, social and economic benefits to contribute to R&I strategy and policy forecast.


  • Decarbonise the industry in several sectors: energy, transport, and other carbon intensive industries
  • De-risking of renewable energy and fuel technologies with a view to their commercial exploitation and net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.
  • Better integration of renewable energy and renewable fuel-based solutions in energy consuming sectors.
  • Enhanced sustainability of renewable energy and renewable fuels value chains, taking fully into account social, economic and environmental aspects in line with the European Green Deal priorities.
  • More effective market uptake of renewable energy and fuel technologies.


  • Affordable and clean energy: lower the green hydrogen production cost.
  • Participate in developing sustainable, secure and competitive energy supply.


  • Establishing a solid long term dependable European innovation base.


WP1: Specifications

WP leader: SOLVAY

Objectives: Carry out a sustainability pre-assessment for guiding the project developments and list the specifications and constraints for producing guidelines for the technical developments to come.

WP2: Synthesis and development of the first-generation MOFs

WP leader: ESPCI

Objectives: Synthetise and select promising MOF phase(s) that will be further engineered in WP4 with the information gained in WP3. In parallel to the evaluation of other potential Cu-PyC based photocatalysts, this WP2 focuses on the production of the first-generation Zr-CuPyC MOF, resulting from optimisations through MNP codeposition, together with the optimisation of its film deposition on a substrate, in the view of their demonstration at laboratory-scale in WP5.

WP3: Assessment, understanding and rationalisation of the MOF catalytic performance

WP leader: UMON

Objectives: Assess continuously the photocatalytic performance of the MOFs produced in both WP2 and WP4, as well as gain in-depth understanding and rationalisation of these MOFs catalytic performances for guiding the

selection of novel MOF catalysts with improved activities (also in WP2 and WP4), using modelling in tandem with advanced characterisation tools.

WP4: Developments towards the refined MOFs

WP leader: ESPCI

Objectives: Propose a refined MOF using as starting basis the phase(s) synthesised and selected in WP2, while further engineering it (through metal/ligand substitution). Co-deposition of MNPs and film preparation will be done as defined in WP2, before upscaling and demonstration of this MOF in WP5.

WP5: Demonstration at laboratory-scale

WP leader: UPV

Objectives: Optimise the synthesis of down-selected MOFs for better scalability and assemble and test the large-scale prototype integrating the best MOFs.

WP6: Technology assessment and benchmarking

WP leader: UMAA

Objectives: Assess and benchmark the technology in terms of environmental, cost, and social performance.

WP7: Dissemination, communication and exploitation activities

Your content goes here. Edit or remove this text inline or in the module Content settings. You can also style every aspect of this content in the module Design settings and even apply custom CSS to this text in the module Advanced settings.

WP8: Project and IPR management

WP leader: ESPCI

Objectives: Ensure efficient and seamless coordination and general management of the project, together with appropriate and efficient data and IPR management.